Nutrition

Basics of Nutrition

*Estheticians are not dieticians and are not adequately trained to recommend dietary changes to clients.  Best to have a working knowledge about nutrition for our own skin and health, and a nutritionist to refer clients to.

Nutrition varies, depending on age, sex, weight, physical activity and body type.

USDA (united states department of agriculture) regulates nutrition-related affairs

RDA (recommended daily allowances) issued by USDA for certain nutrients (vitamins & minerals)

Food pyramid- guideline for foods in food groups for individuals t consume daily.

Pyramid is now personalized for individual needs, and can be found at mypyramid.gov.  grains, vegetables, dairy, fruits, meat/beans are the basic food categories.

Examples of food guidelines are the USDA food guide, the Dietary Approaches to stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan, and the Institute of Medicine’s nutrient take recommendations.

Reports say that much of the population consumes more calories than needed.  To avoid this, choose foods that are high in nutrients but low in calories.  Everyone is encouraged to eat foods with more calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamins A, C &E.  reccommendations include decreasing calories, saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, sugars and salt.

Again, individual needs differ, and a dietician or doctor is the person to seek advice from.

 

Food pyramid-

-grains 6 oz

-vegetables 2 ½ c

-fruits 2 c

-milk 3 c

-meat & beans 5 ½ oz

 

Macronutrients- basic building blocks necessary for bodily functions.  Proteins, carbohydrates and fats.  Largest part of the nutrition we take in.  recommended intake is protein 20%, carbs 54%, fat 26% based on 2000 calorie diet, per USDA’s DASH eating plan.

Protiens- chains of amino acid molecules, used by every cell in the body.  Used in the duplication of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), blueprint material containing all the info that controls the function of every living cell.  Needed to make muscle tissue, blood, enzymes and keratin.  Used to make antibodies and collagen.  Proteins contain all essential amino acides.

There are 100 naturally occurring amino acids, but the proteins of all plants and animlas are made from just 20 “common amino acids”

11 of the 20 common amino acids are called nonessential amino acids- can be synthesized by the body and do not have to be in our diet.

9 remaining amino acids are the essential amino acids that must be in our daily diet, cannot be synthesized by human body.

Sources of proteins-fish, meat, poultry, eggs, dairy are complete proteines.

Plant sources can also give us fiber, but are not complete proteins, because they lack at least one amino acid.

Complimentary foods- combinations of two incomplete proteins that provide all the essential amino acids and make a complete protein.  Ex. peanut butter and bread, rice and beans, beans and corn, blackeyed peas and cornbread.

Vegetarians need to be careful to obtain their daily protein requirements.  Those who consume dairy have an easier time.  vegans must be especially careful to consume enough complete proteins.  Soy products are especially beneficial.

Dietary sources of protein come from animal meats as well as fish, eggs, dairy products, nuts grains and beans.

Protein deficiencies can cause anemia, low resistance to infection, and organ impairment.

Carbohydrates

Break down the basic chemical sugars that supply energy for the body. “Carbs”

Glucose- the most important carb, provides most of the body’s energy.  Stored in muscles and liver as glycogen (animal starch).

ATP- adenosine triphosphate- nutrients are broken down into this substance which provides energy for cells.  Converts O to Co2

Carbs can be combined with proteins to produce many important body chemicals (ex mucopoly saccharides- carbohydrate-lipid complexes that are good water binders that are important to the skin and are present in the dermis as glycosaminoglycans- water binding substance between the fibers of the dermis)

 

Monosaccahrides, Disaccharides, polysaccharides (saccharide= sugar)

Monosaccharides- basic unit of carbohydrate (ex. glucose), a one-unit sugar molecule that all cells use for energy. Fructose is a natural occurring monosaccharide

Disaccharides- made up of two molecular sugar units. Ex. lactose and sucrose.

Polysaccharides- complex compounds, consist of a chain of sugar unit molecules.  Ex. digestable polysaccharide starch can be broken into simpler, usable glucose molecules.

 

Three basic types of carbohydrates

Simple sugars- ex. sucrose, fructose, lactose

Starches- complex carbs, present in many veg and grains. White, odorless complex carb.

Fiber- made up of cellulose, undigestable, necessary for proper digestion.  Lack of fiber is associated with constipation and, in the long term, colon cancer.

 

Dietary sources of carbohydrates

-simple carbs such as sweets, syrups, honey, fruits, candy and many veg

-starches, including grains, cereals, breads and other flour products, potatoes, rice, legumes, pasta

-high-fiber foods including grains, brans, whole-grain breads, beans, apples, and vegs (such as carrots and corn)

Some foods are listed in 2 categories because there is more than one type of sacchride in many foods (ex. potatoes contain starch and fiber)

 

Glucose- blood sugar, requires adequate carbohydrates

Hypoglycemia- low blood sugar, causes symptoms such as fatigue, anxiety and food cravings.

Insulin- hormone produced in pancreas, brings nutrients and glucose into cells and stores fat. Insulin is required for the body to utilize glucose.

Diabetes results from this imbalance There is a high level of glucose in blood and low level of glucose absorbtion by tissues.

Reports say that much of the population consumes more calories than needed.  To avoid this, choose foods that are high in nutrients but low in calories.  Everyone is encouraged to eat foods with more calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamins A, C &E.  reccommendations include decreasing calories, saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, sugars and salt.

Fats (lipids)- macronutrients used as energy (but not as readily as carbohydrates)some fat is required in the diet and is an essential component of good health. Thin layer of fat helps retain heat.  Fat is used to produce the minerals in the sebaceous glands that lubricate the skin.

 

Lipids are fats or fatlike substances used to make hormones, create cell membranes and assist in absorbtion of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K.

 

 

Fatty are organic compounds made up of a glycerol molecule and fatty acids.

The chemical composition of the carbon and hydrogen molecules that combine with glycerol determines the types oif fatty acid.  Fatty acids make up triglycerides, the main fat in foods.

Triglycerides- fats and oils representing 95% of fat intake

Phospholipids and sterols are the remaining 5%.

 

3 types of fatty acids

-saturated fats- more rigid molecules, can cause harden of the arteries

-monounsaturated fats0 from olive and canola oils are more fluid molecules, are important for cell integrity and membrane phospholipids.

-polyunsaturated fats- liquid at room temp and are more easily oxidized.  Found in fish, corn, safflour and nut oils.

 

Body can manufacture fats from carbohydrates and proteins.

Fatty acids from food protect against disease and help produce hormones.

Omega-3 and omega-6 are disease-preventing polyunsaturated fatty acids necessary for brain and body development, metabolism, hair and skin growth.

Too much omega-6 can lead to health problems, and the typical American diet has an excess of omega-6. mediterranian diet has more omega-3.

Recommended dietary amount  is omega-3 should be 3 times more than omega-6.

 

Linoleic acid- omega-6, essential fatty acid used to make important hormones and the lipid barrier of the skin. Linoleic acid is found in oils made from safflower, sunflower, corn, soybean, borage, flaxseed.

Omega-3 fatty acids are “good’ polyunsaturated fat that may decrease the likelihood of cardiovascular disese by reducing arteriosclerosis.  Largely present in cold-water fish.  Salmon is highest, macarel, tuna, herring, trout and cod are also high. Nutritionists suggest fish should be consumed 2-3x per week.

Alphalinoleic acid, omega-3, is popular for healthy skin and reducing inflammation.  Sources of omega-3 include fish oil, walnuts, flax, pumpkin seeds and algae

Arteriosclerosis- hardening and clogging of the arteries.

 

Trans fatty acids-can increase the “bad” type of cholesterol in the blood (low-density lipoprotein [LDL]).

LDLs-composed largely of cholesterol.

HDLs (high-density lipoprotein)- “good” lipoproteins with high protein content.

Lipoproteins contain protein and lipids that transport water-insoluble lipids through the blood.

Cholesterol- produced by the body, not required for diet.  Necessary for cell membranes, nerve and grain cells and bile synthesis.  Precursor of vitamin D, and steroid hormones.  Cholesterol and phospholipids (and some triglycerides) are hormones. Absorbed into the lymph system (along with triglycerides) because they are insoluble in water(blood).

Saturated fats- unhealthy, highly processed fats that raise serum cholesterol. Found mostly in animal sources, and coconut and palm oils.

Hydrogenated fats- elevate blood lipids and cholesterol.

Negative effects- results in clogged blood vessels, which slow or block blood flow.  High levels of blood cholesterol can lead to high blood pressure, heart disease and stroke. (yellow or white papules around the eyes may indicate an elevated cholesterol level), high cholesterol is also genetically determined.

 

Calories- measure of heat units.  Fuel the body making energy available for work.

The number of calories required to run the body varies with individual lifestyles.

Dieticians generally believe that 55-60% of all calories should be obtained from carbs (though, not candy, which should be limited to no more than 240 calories/day for women and 310 for men)

 

Fats

Reports say that much of the population consumes more calories than needed.  To avoid this, choose foods that are high in nutrients but low in calories.  Everyone is encouraged to eat foods with more calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamins A, C &E.  recommendations include decreasing calories, saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, sugars and salt.

Fats (lipids)- macronutrients used as energy (but not as readily as carbohydrates)some fat is required in the diet and is an essential component of good health. Thin layer of fat helps retain heat.  Fat is used to produce the minerals in the sebaceous glands that lubricate the skin.

Lipids are fats or fatlike substances used to make hormones, create cell membranes and assist in absorbtion of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K.

Fats are organic compounds made up of a glycerol molecule and fatty acids.

The chemical composition of the carbon and hydrogen molecules that combine with glycerol determines the types oif fatty acid.  Fatty acids make up triglycerides, the main fat in foods.

Triglycerides- fats and oils representing 95% of fat intake

Phospholipids and sterols are the remaining 5%.

 

3 types of fatty acids

-saturated fats- more rigid molecules, can cause harden of the arteries

-monounsaturated fats0 from olive and canola oils are more fluid molecules, are important for cell integrity and membrane phospholipids.

-polyunsaturated fats- liquid at room temp and are more easily oxidized.  Found in fish, corn, safflour and nut oils.

 

Body can manufacture fats from carbohydrates and proteins.

Fatty acids from food protect against disease and help produce hormones.

Omega-3 and omega-6 are disease-preventing polyunsaturated fatty acids necessary for brain and body development, metabolism, hair and skin growth.

Too much omega-6 can lead to health problems, and the typical American diet has an excess of omega-6. mediterranian diet has more omega-3.

Recommended dietary amount  is omega-3 should be 3 times more than omega-6.

 

Linoleic acid- omega-6, essential fatty acid used to make important hormones and the lipid barrier of the skin. Linoleic acid is found in oils made from safflower, sunflower, corn, soybean, borage, flaxseed.

Omega-3 fatty acids are “good’ polyunsaturated fat that may decrease the likelihood of cardiovascular disese by reducing arteriosclerosis.  Largely present in cold-water fish.  Salmon is highest, macarel, tuna, herring, trout and cod are also high. Nutritionists suggest fish should be consumed 2-3x per week.

Alphalinoleic acid, omega-3, is popular for healthy skin and reducing inflammation.  Sources of omega-3 include fish oil, walnuts, flax, pumpkin seeds and algae

Arteriosclerosis- hardening and clogging of the arteries.

Trans fatty acids-can increase the “bad” type of cholesterol in the blood (low-density lipoprotein [LDL]).

LDLs-composed largely of cholesterol.

HDLs (high-density lipoprotein)- “good” lipoproteins with high protein content.

Lipoproteins contain protein and lipids that transport water-insoluble lipids through the blood.

Cholesterol- produced by the body, not required for diet.  Necessary for cell membranes, nerve and grain cells and bile synthesis.  Precursor of vitamin D, and steroid hormones.  Cholesterol and phospholipids (and some triglycerides) are hormones. Absorbed into the lymph system (along with triglycerides) because they are insoluble in water(blood).

Saturated fats- unhealthy, highly processed fats that raise serum cholesterol. Found mostly in animal sources, and coconut and palm oils.

Hydrogenated fats- elevate blood lipids and cholesterol.

Negative effects- results in clogged blood vessels, which slow or block blood flow.  High levels of blood cholesterol can lead to high blood pressure, heart disease and stroke. (yellow or white papules around the eyes may indicate an elevated cholesterol level), high cholesterol is also genetically determined.

Calories- measure of heat units.  Fuel the body making energy available for work.

The number of calories required to run the body varies with individual lifestyles.

Dieticians generally believe that 55-60% of all calories should be obtained from carbs (though, not candy, which should be limited to no more than 240 calories/day for women and 310 for men)

 

Micronutrients- vitamins, substances that have no calories and no real nutritional value, but are necessary for many nutrients

-to be properly processed by the body

-for many processes to be carried out by the cells

-for the production of many biomechanicals necessary for life

- for many chemical reactions that break down and reconstruct proteins, convert amino acids and synthesize fatty acids

-involved in energy release from carbohydrates

 

Most vitamins are necessary to be taken in the diet because the body can’t synthesize them.

 

Vitamins role in skin health

-healing

-softening

-fighting diseases of the skin

-antioxidants (vit A, C, E) have positive effects on skin health.

 

* Vitamins should come primarily from foods we eat.  If dietary requirements aren’t being met, taking vitamins internally is the best way to support skin health, as opposed to topical applications.  Medications can interfere with the body’s ability to absorb vitamins and minerals

 

Two categories—fat soluble (A, D, E, K) and water-soluble (B, C)

 

Fat-soluble vitamins—generally present in fats within foods.  Body stores them in the liver and in adipose tissue.  It’s possible to get too much of certain vitamins because it’s stored in the body (namely A and D).  fat-soluble vitamins protect the outside membrane of cells.

 

Vitamin A-

-formerly known as retinol, an ingredient used in skin care products and designed for aging skin.  Belongs to a group called retinoids (Ex.Retinol, retinoic acid, Retin-A).

-necessary for proper eyesight, especially to avoid night blindness (impaired ability of the eyes to adapt to the dark).

-important in maintainance of epithelial tissue (surface of lungs, intestines, mucous membranes, bladar, skin)

-supports overall health of the skin

-aids in functioning and rapair of skin cells, improves skin’s elasticity and thickness

-antioxidant

-can help prevent certain types of cancer (including skin cancer)

 

Topically

  1.  Can be used to treat acne, wrinkles and other ksin conditions
  2. Found in many OTC creams and lotions
  3. Derivatives are used in many prescription creams (retinoic acid, retin-a, known as retinoids)
  4. Tretinoin (Retin-a or Renova) treats acne and sun-damage
  5. Retinol heps improve the appearance of sun-damaged skin and may help other esthetic disorders.
  6. Retinyl palmitate polypeptide and beta-carotene are also used in skin care, primarily for antioxidant properties

 

Without vitamin A

-hard keratin protein forms in the body, impairing cellular function of epithelial tissues, replacing mucus and sometimes resulting in bacterial infection (these are also frequent sites for cancer development)

 

Consuming too much vitamin A can result in vitamin A toxicity- resulting in hair loss, very dry lips, damage to liver, spleen and other organs. Avoid taking more than 15,000 retinol equivelants per day (RE).

 

Provitamins- (precursors) vitamin-containing substances that are converted to the actual vitamin once they’re in the body.

 

Beta-karotene is a provitamin A. responsible for bright color of fruits and veg. (carrots, dark green veg, fruits that are orange in color).  Carotenes consumed in the diet are important in controlling free radicals formed during biochemical reactions in the body. May play a role in the formation and function of the immune system.

 

Most people get about half of their vitamin A from retinol (produced in body), and half from beta-carotene.

 

“fortified” means  a vitamin has been added

 

Vitamin D

  1. “sunshine vitamin” skin synthesizes it from cholesterol when exposed to sunlight.  Minimal amounts of sunshine are all that is necessary for vitamin D synthesis.
  2. function: enables body to properly absorb and use calcium (which is needed for proper bone development  and maintainance. Promotes health, rapid healing of the skin.  Found in many fortified foods and dietary supliments.  Sources include fortified milk, fish oils, egg yolks, butter.  (foods from plants aren’t good sources of vitamin D)
  3. deficiency- rickets, seen in children.  Bones not developed properly.  In adults, deficiency results in osteomalacia (adult rickets) more common in women than men, and often first develops during pregnancy.

Osteoporosis- reduction in quality of bone, or atrophy of skeletal tissue.  Age-related, 80% of people with osteoporosis are women age 45 and older.  Lack of vitamin d contributes to osteoporosis, and appears to be linked to psoriasis.

  1. rarely toxic symptoms appear, but most vitamin d toxicity is a result of megadose        supplements

 

tox·ic definition

Pronunciation: /ˈtäk-sik/
Function: adj
1 :  of, relating to, or caused by a poison or toxin <A< span>toxic  effect>
2 a :  affected by a poison or toxin
b :  affected with toxemia of pregnancy < toxic  pregnant women>
3 : POISONOUS < toxic  drugs>

 

Free radicals- wild molecules that steal electrons from other molecules. Continual damage from free radicals are associated with many diseases (tumor formation, aging process in the body and skin)

 

Vitamin E

Tocopherol, a primary antioxidant (important in protecting the body from damage caused by free radicals)

Helps stop free radicals so that cell membranes aren’t damaged.

Generally works to protect many tissues of the body from damage so they can function normally.

Used inc onjunction with vit A, helps protect the skin from harmful sun rays&heal damage to tissues when used internally or externally.  Externally (topical) can help heal structural damage to skin (burns, stretch marks).

Sources include vegetable oils, seed oils (safflower) green, leafy vegs, avocados, wheat germ, egg yolks, butter)

 

 

Vitamin K

Essential for the synthesis of proteins necessary for blood coagulation.  Vit K helps diminish presence of abnormal capillaries or spider veins by strengthening capillary walls.

Sources include beans, dark, leafy vegs, egg yolks.

Deficiencies are rare, result in hard-to-control bleeding and can be related to disorders that prevent proper absorbtion of fats by the intestines.

 

 

Water-soluble vitamins

B, C

-benefit the inside of cells.  Requires regular supplies, because they are used in almost every metabolic reaction, and are not retained by the body (excreted)

  • Niacin- required for manufacturing steroids and RBCs
  • Riboflavin (B2)- water-soluble, used to manufacture various amino and fatty acids
  • Thiamine (B1) – removes CO2 and converts carbs stored as fat. (beriberi is disease caused by deficiency, slows heart rate and cause mental dysfunction.  Can stunt children’s growth. Deficiency can be caused by alcohol abuse)
  • Pyrodoxine (B6)- part of breaking down proteins and reconstructing amino acids.  Can help improve effets of PMS and irritability.  Strongly connected to protein synthesis.  Many problems are associated with deficiency.
  • Folacin (folic acid)- involved in processing amino acids and transporting certain molecules.  Important for cells conducive to mental health.  Requires vit C to work properly.  Deficiencies can cause mental problems (moodiness, hostility, memory loss), connection between low intakes and birth defects and colorectal cancer.
  • Biotin (B7)- synthesis of proteins and fatty acids, energy formation by cells.  Produced in the intestines by “good” bacteria.  Deficiencies are primarily caused by intestinal disorders or by poor absorbtion.  Antibiotics can kill off good and bad bacteria.
  • Cobalamine (B12)- important in the activation of folacin, fatty acid synthesis, DNA synthesis (in conjunction with proper RBC vessel formation by bone marrow)  deficiencies include pernicious anemia.  Absorbtion decreases with age, deficiency sumptoms in older persons are more likely to occur
  • Pantothenic acid (B15)- involved in synthesizing fatty acids and metabolizing proteins and carbohydrates, synthesis of hormones, cholesterol and phospholipids.  Deficiency  is practically nonexistent.

 

Vitamin C- ascorbic acid, antioxidant that protects the body from oxidation and problems involving free radicals.  May help prevent cancer because of it’s ability to scavenge free radicals that attack DNA.  DNA damage can lead to the formation of cancerous cells.

-fight aging process, promotoe collagen production.  Renews vit E by allowing it to neutralize more free radicals.

Preent damage to capillary walls that can cause easy bruising, bleeding gums, capillary distention.

Prevents CV disease by helping maintain blood vessel walls and preventing oxidation of bd cholesterol (prevents clogging)

Easily depleated during times of elevated stress

Reduces time and severity of colds.

Found in citrus fruits, dark green and leafy vegs.

Easily depleated in smokers (smokers have more free radicals), who should have twice as much vit C.

 

Bioflavinoids (vit P) enhance absorbtion of vit C.  relieve pain and bruises, protect capillary blood vessels, promote circulation, have antibacterial effect, can redue symptoms of oral herpes. (found in citrus peel, peppers, grapes, garlic, berries and tea)

 

Minerals- inorganic materials essential in many cell reactions and bodily functions.  Most required in small quantities, but are necessary.

 

Essential minerals

  • Calcium- forming and maintaining teeth and bones.  Prevent osteoporosis (degenerative, brittle bones)
  • Magnesium- energy release, protein synthesis, prevent tooth decay and nerve&muscle movement
  • Phosphorous- present in DNA, involved in energy release. Needed for bone formation and cell growth, assists vitamins and food energy proceses.
  • Potassium- water balance, energy use, muscular movment.  Aids in maintaining blood pressure and regulates cell nutrient transfer and reactions. Important in heart and nerous system functions.
  • Sodium- moves carbon dioxide, regulates water levels, transports materials through cell membranes.  Regulates blood pH, helps stomach, nerve and muscle function.  Generally, the higher the salt intake is, the higher blood pressure will be (should consume less than 2,300 mg—1 tsp/day).

 

Trace minerals-reqired in very small quantities.  many are present in cells and tissues, necessary for correct body functions

  • Iron- used in production of hemoglobin and oxygenation of RBCs, essential for enzymes and immune systems
  • Iodine- metabolize excess fat. development and thyroid health.
  • Zinc- protein synthesis and collagen formation, wound healing, helps immune system.
  • Copper- aids in formation of bone, hemoglobin, cells and elastin.  Involved in healing, enrgy production, essential for collagen formation.
  • Chromium- helps withenergy and metabolism of glucose, aids in synthesizing fats and proteins.  Stabilizes blood sugar levels.
  • Fluoride- healthy teeth and bone formation
  • Selenium- antioxidant protects the immune system.  Works with Vit E to produce antibodies, maintain healthy heart, needed for tissue elasticity.
  • Manganese- assists protein and fat metabolism, promotes healthy nerves, supports immune system function. Energy production and bone growth.

 

Nutrition and esthetics—educate clients on myths about nutrition and skin care (ex/ junk food doesn’t cause acne, whereas excess iodine can)

 

 

Water

  • Water = 50-70% of body’s weight.  Required for sustaining cell health, aid in elemiination of toxins nd waste, helps regulate body temp., aids in proper digestion.  Helps skin functions.  9-12 c a day is the avg recommendation.
  • 75% of Americans are chronically dehydrated
  • Mild dehydration slows metabolism by as much as 3%
  • Drinking lots of water can help stop the hunger pangs for many dieters
  • Lack of water is the #1 cause of daytime fatigue
  • 2% drop in water can trigger fuzzy short-term memory, trouble with basic math, difficulty focusing on a computer screen or printed page.
  • Requirements for intake depends on body weight and level of daily physical activity
  • Divide body weight by 2, divide this number by 8, that’s how my 8 oz glases you should drink every day.
  • If you engage in intense physical activity each dya, add 2 glasses.

 

 

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